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ASQ — Problem Solving Tools Resources: Eight Disciplines (8D) Model (3)

By Jean-Pierre Amiel posted 03/07/23 03:18 PM



This third article introduces the eight disciplines (8D) model, an approach typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals, most commonly used by the automotive industry but also been successfully applied in healthcare, retail, finance, government, and manufacturing. It's purpose: to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems. The model establishes a permanent corrective action based on statistical analysis of a problem and focuses on its origin by determining its root causes. It originally comprised eight stages (disciplines) but later an initial planning stage was added.

This series of articles presents techniques to identify a "problem", identify its most likely cause (root cause) and then resolve the situation. These articles are also extracted from ASQ's Quality Resources library which showcases information related to the quality world's Body of knowledge (BOK) and compiled from more than 75 years’ worth of content for all experience levels. It is only meant to be a starting point.

How to Use the 8D Approach:

    1. D0: Plan - Plan to solve the problem and determine the prerequisites.

    1. D1: Use a team - Select and establish a team with product/process knowledge.

    1. D2: Define and describe the problem - Identify in quantifiable terms the who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) of the problem.

    1. D3: Develop interim containment plan; implement and verify interim actions - Define and implement containment actions to isolate the problem from any customer.

    1. D4: Determine, identify, and verify root causes and escape points - Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem occurred, identify why it was not noticed when it occurred. Verify/prove all causes: use 5 Whys and cause and effect diagrams to map causes against the effect or problem identified.

    1. D5: Choose and verify permanent corrections (PCs) for problem/nonconformity - Quantitatively confirm through pre-production programs that the selected correction will resolve the problem.

    1. D6: Implement and validate corrective actions - Define and implement the best corrective actions (CA).

    1. D7: Take preventive measures - Modify the management and operation systems, practices, and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems.

    1. D8: Congratulate your team - Recognize the collective efforts of the team.

Article adapted from: Modular Kaizen: Continuous and Breakthrough Improvement, ASQ Quality Press.

Book: Introduction To 8D Problem Solving, ASQ Quality Press.

§ This News post was adapted by J.P. Amiel, ASQ Senior, CQA ret., Web committee Chair, from content at ASQ's Quality Resources pages, which is excerpted and adapted from various publications in the ASQ Quality Press.

ASQ References:

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