III.E.3 Other Quality Methodologies
Excerpt From The Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence Handbook
Total quality management (TQM) is a term initially coined by the U.S. Naval Air Systems Command to describe its Japanese-style management approach to quality improvement. TQM is an umbrella methodology drawing on a knowledge of the principles and practices of the behavioral sciences, the analysis of quantitative and nonquantitative data, economics theories, and process analysis to continually improve the quality of all processes.
The principles and tools of TQM were developed over a long period of time. Some of the first seeds of quality management were planted in the 1920s as the principles of scientific management swept through U.S. industry. At that time businesses clearly separated the processes of planning and carrying out the plan, and union opposition arose as workers were deprived of a voice in the conditions and functions of their work. The Hawthorne experiments in the late 1920s showed how worker productivity could be impacted by participation.
In the 1930s Walter Shewhart developed the methods for statistical analysis and control of quality. In the 1950s W. Edwards Deming taught these methods to Japanese engineers and executives, while Joseph M. Juran taught the concepts of controlling quality and managerial breakthrough.
Armand V. Feigenbaum’s 1961 book Total Quality Control is a forerunner of the present understanding of TQM. Likewise, Philip B. Crosby’s promotion of zero defects paved the way for quality improvement in many companies.
The Japanese approach to quality management, influenced by Deming, Juran, and Feigenbaum, was promoted under several names. In 1968 the Japanese named their approach to total quality companywide quality control. Kaoru Ishikawa’s synthesis of the philosophy contributed to Japan’s ascendancy as a quality leader.
TQM is the name for the philosophy of a broad and systemic approach to managing organizational quality. Quality standards such as the ISO 9000 series and quality award programs such as the Deming Prize and the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP) specify principles and processes that comprise TQM.
Quality Management BOK Reference
III Management Elements and Methods
III.E Quality Models and Theories
III.E.3 Other quality methodologies - Describe and differentiate methods such as total quality management (TQM), continuous improvement, and benchmarking.
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