III.A.2 Management Theories and Styles
Behavioral Theories. Behavioral theory is the background on which many motivational theories are based. Two landmark theories related to motivation are discussed in Chapter 2, Section 4. They are Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory (satisfiers and dissatisfiers).
Douglas McGregor formulated the theory X versus theory Y model. Theory X is a negative view of human nature, assuming that most employees do not want to work and will require continual prodding. Theory Y is a positive view, believing that employees want to work and will seek responsibilities that can offer solutions to organizational problems and their own personal growth. Consistently treating workers under either of the assumptions tends to be a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Learning Theories. There are several theories of how people learn. David Kolb formulated the experiential learning model whereby a person (1) has an experience, (2) reflects on the experience, (3) develops abstract theories based on the experience, and (4) applies what he or she has learned.1 When the knowledge is applied, it then creates another experience, and the cycle continues (see Figure 8.1). The model is useful not only for designing training programs, but also for understanding how people react to certain types of training since most people tend to prefer particular phases of the learning cycle. For example, some prefer hands-on learning (phases 1 and 4), while others prefer abstract thinking (phases 2 and 3).
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III Management Elements and Methods
III.A Management Skills and Abilities
III.A.2 Management theories and styles
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