Featured Article - Enhancing The Certified Quality Manager/ Organizational Excellence Body Of Knowledge For Promoting Organization Excellence


Milton Krivokuca is Chair Emeritus of the Master of Science Quality
Assurance program at California State University Dominguez Hills.
He has also taught master’s classes in critical thinking and
quality theories at several universities and has presented papers all
over the world as well as countless locations throughout the United
States and Canada. Dr. Krivokuca is past chair of ASQ, Quality
Management Division, and an ASQ Fellow. His professional
certifications include CMQ/OE, CQA, CQT, CQPA, CCT, CQE,
CSSGB, and CSSBB. Currently, Dr. Krivokuca is president of
Milton Krivokuca and Associates based in Wilmington, North
Carolina. He can be reached at mkrivokuca16@gmail.com.
The Socratic Method and Kepner Tregoe

From the Fall 2020 Quality Management Forum
By Milton Krivokuca

The term quality, as it was understood by business managers in the late twentieth century, was defined by the theories and philosophies of recognized leaders such as W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Philip Crosby. These quality-related theories, methodologies, and tools supported process and product improvements, primarily in the manufacturing industries. Essentially, quality was considered a support service for manufacturers to ensure that defective products did not reach customers. Although not commonly noted, the introduction of quality in manufacturing culminated in what we now know as Industry 2.0 and provided the foundations for Industry 3.0.

These quality foundations, which were developed and deployed globally, were initially recognized as the basic body of knowledge for quality managers and later became the basis for the Certified Quality Manager (CQM) Body of Knowledge (BoK). The application of quality to product processes continues because the perfect product has yet to be developed, and all products can be improved as technology and customers needs evolve. Quality professionals have been very successful in calculating root causes of failures, preventing future product failures, and improving customer satisfaction. Deming and others were highly effective in preparing quality professionals to do their jobs well.

In the early twenty-first century, the CQM BoK required extensive updates. These necessary changes were based on responses to surveys of quality managers conducted all over the world. It appeared the role of quality manager was rapidly changing. Quality, as it was deployed throughout Industry 3.0, was evolving, and the need for quality implementation was spreading to all areas within companies. For example, improvements became necessary in the support processes, such as human resources, marketing, informational technology, and the general administrative departments of companies. The quality manager had become the de facto subject matter expert who needed to understand the inner workings of the entire company in order to provide guidance and support in gathering relevant and objective data in support of internal decision making in all areas. From this business environment, the Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence (CMQ/OE) BoK was derived.

Middle-level managers now had an element of quality included in their daily job functions. Processes had to function smoothly and with minimal waste. The need to reduce process time was a major factor because the accelerated advances in technology were transitioning from Industry 3.0 to Industry 4.0. The application of quality tools evolved from the analysis by quality engineers of data provided by quality technicians and inspectors to the analysis of information furnished by individuals employed in customer service, front and back office operations, bank tellers, and other service-related functions. The new generation of CMQ/OEs began as MBAs, educated in the functional areas of business, and skilled at decision making and people management. Deming, Juran, and Crosby may have been included in a chapter or two in an operations management class, but they no longer made a significant contribution to the student learning objectives. The contemporary MBA can now include the proven tools of quality and the methodologies of the quality gurus into his or her business school curriculum skillset upon attaining the CMQ/OE.

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News Quality Management Division 02/17/2021 1:56pm CST


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